Odd shell-like structures that resemble angular ribbed cones with four-way symmetry appear in the fossil record starting around the mid-to-late Cambrian (with a possible Ediacaran record).
Known as conulariids, these fossils are so distinctive and different from anything else that for a long time their evolutionary affinities were unknown, and they were considered to be a “problematic” group. But in recent years they’ve been identified as being cnidarians, generally thought to be close relatives of modern stalked jellyfish.
None of these species have been given their own names, and they’re all tiny, only around 1cm in diameter (0.4″). But their anatomy is still preserved in enough detail to tentatively classify them into known lineages, including the box jelly, narcomedusan, and semaeostomean shown here.
Much larger Cambrian jellyfish have been also found in Death Valley, California, and in Wisconscin, representing preserved mass stranding events on ancient shorelines. Some of these jellies were up to about 50cm in diameter (20″), indicating that large soft-bodied animals were much more common in Cambrian seas than previously thought.