Molluscs are one of the largest animal phylums, second only to the arthropods, and are also hugely diverse, found in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments all over the world. Not only are familiar modern animals like bivalves, slugs and snails, and squid and octopuses included in this huge lineage, but also nautiloids, chitons, tusk shells, monoplacophorans, worm-like aplacophorans, and the extinct ammonites and orthocerids.
Like the annelids they’re lophotrochozoan spiralians, and their exact evolutionary relationships within that group are a bit uncertain. But their fossil history seems to go back at least 558 million years with the “mollusc-like” Ediacaran Kimberella, and the earliest members of most major mollusc lineages had probably already diverged from each other before the start of the Cambrian.
The common ancestor of all molluscs probably had features like an unsegmented body, a muscular foot on their underside, a mantle and mantle cavity, a radula, and possibly a tough but non-mineralized leathery “shell” – and Odontogriphus omalus may represent an early stem lineage retaining that basic body plan into the mid-Cambrian.Continue reading “Cambrian Explosion Month #23: Phylum Mollusca – The Stem Weirdos”