It Came From The Wastebasket #10: Struggling With Stegoceras

First described and named in the early 1900s, Stegoceras validum was a dog-sized small pachycephalosaur that lived in Alberta, Canada, during the Late Cretaceous (~77-74 million years ago).

Initially just known from its skull domes, it was one of the first pachycephalosaurs to be discovered and was very poorly understood until more complete remains were found in the 1920s. Then it spent a couple of decades being mixed up with Troodon due to similarities in tooth shape, until the discovery of Pachycephalosaurus led to pachycephalosaurs finally being recognized as a distinct group of ornithischian dinosaurs in the 1940s.

An illustration of Stegoceras, an extinct pachycephalosaur. It's a small bipedal dinosaur with tiny arms, bird-like legs, a speculative coat of fluffy protofeathers over most of its body, and a long tapering tail with speculative bristly quills. It has a large bony dome on its forehead, rimmed with short spikes, and a short snout with a stubby beak. It's mainly colored white and grey, with brighter red and yellow markings on its face and red towards the tip of its tail.
Stegoceras validum

For much of the 20th century Stegoceras was treated as a wastebasket taxon for any small-to-mid-sized North American (and one Asian) pachycephalosaur, and multiple different species were named based on what were often rather dubious fragmentary fossils. But towards the start of the 21st century this mess did start getting cleaned up, merging some dubious species into the original Stegoceras validum, and moving others to separate genera like Sphaerotholus, Colepiocephale, Hanssuesia, and Sinocephale.

By the early 2000s just the Canadian Stegoceras validum remained – but then in 2011 the new species Stegoceras novomexicanum was named based on specimens from New Mexico, USA. The validity of this second species has been debated, since the fossils are juveniles and might instead belong to Stegoceras validum or another genus like Sphaerotholus, but if it is some sort of Stegoceras then it significantly re-extends the known geographic range of this little pachycephalosaur.

Spectember 2021 – Quadrupedal Pachycephalosaurs

Today’s #Spectember concept comes from an anonymous submitter:

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Weird Heads Month #18: Boneheaded Dinosaurs

Pachycephalosaurs are highly recognizable dinosaurs with their thick spiky skulls, and it’s not hugely surprising that they were the evolutionary cousins of the equally weird-headed ceratopsians.

Much like their frilled relatives they had beaks at the tips of their snouts and large gut cavities for digesting plant matter, but they also had surprisingly sharp theropod-like teeth in front of their more standard herbivore teeth further back – suggesting they may also have been opportunistic omnivores, occasionally snacking on carrion or small animals similarly to modern pigs or bears.

Their striking-looking dome heads were probably used for combat, headbutting or flank-butting each other, and many fossil skulls show evidence of injuries that would have been caused by that sort of behavior.

The eponymous Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis lived in North America right at the end of the Cretaceous, about 70-66 million years ago. It was one of the largest of its kind, reaching lengths of around 4.5m (14’9″), and was characterized by a large bony dome-head surrounded by small blunt spikes.

But it turns out that was probably only what it looked like as a fully mature adult.

Recent discoveries of juvenile Pachycephalosaurus skulls confirmed a hypothesis proposed a few years earlier: these dinosaurs changed appearance drastically as they grew up, and younger individuals had been mistaken for separate species. They started off with domeless flat heads, bristling with long spikes (a form previously named Dracorex hogwartsia) then as they matured their domes began to grow (previously Stygimoloch spinifer) and by full maturity they had big domes with the spikes shrunk down to smaller stubbier knobs (the classic Pachycephalosaurus look).

This particular reconstruction depicts a Stygimoloch-like subadult individual, not quite fully mature and still sporting some longer spikes.